occurs when the middle of the toe points upwards abnormally. This most often occurs in the second toe, and is often the
result of a big toe bunion pushing on the second toe. A painful callous often forms on top of the first joint in the toe. Treatment of a hammer toe may consist of simple padding of the callous on top
of the toe, as well as buying appropriate footwear. The best shoes for patients with a hammer toe will have a wide toebox, no pressure on the end of the toe, and will not press on a bunion (which may
cause worsening of the hammer toe).
Essentially, hammertoes are caused by an abnormal interworking of the bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons that comprise your feet. When muscles fail to work in a balanced manner, the toe joints can
bend to form the hammertoe shape. If they remain in this position for an extended period, the muscles and tendons supporting them tighten and remain in that position. A common factor in development
of hammertoe is wearing shoes that squeeze the toes or high heels that jam the toes into the front of the shoe. Most likely due to these factors, hammertoe occurs much more frequently in women than
Common symptoms of hammertoes include pain or irritation of the affected toe when wearing shoes. corns and calluses (a buildup of skin) on the toe, between two toes, or on the ball of the foot. Corns
are caused by constant friction against the shoe. They may be soft or hard, depending upon their location. Inflammation, redness, or a burning sensation. Contracture of the toe. In more severe cases
of hammertoe, open sores may form.
The earlier a hammertoe is diagnosed, the better the prognosis and treatment options. Your doctor will be able to diagnose your hammertoe with a simple examination of the foot and your footwear. He
or she may take an x-ray to check the severity of the condition. You may also be asked about your symptoms, your normal daily activities, and your medical and family history.
Non Surgical Treatment
If your hammertoe problem is diagnosed as flexible hammertoe, there are a number of nonsurgical treatments that may be able to straighten out your toe or toes and return them to their proper
alignment. Padding and Taping. Your physician may pad the boney top-part of your hammertoe as a means of relieving pain, and may tape your toes as a way to change their position, correct the muscle
imbalance and relieve the pressure that led to the hammertoe's development. Medication. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen can help deal with inflammation, swelling and pain caused
by your hammertoe. Cortisone injections may be hammertoes
prescribed for the same
purpose. If your hammertoe is a consequence of arthritis, your physician may prescribe medications for that.
In advanced cases in which the toe has become stiff and permanently bent, the toe can be straightened with surgery. One type of surgery involves removing a small section of the toe bone to allow the
toe to lie flat. Surgery for hammertoe usually is classified as a cosmetic procedure. Cosmetic foot surgeries sometimes cause complications such as pain or numbness, so it?s better to treat the
problem with a shoe that fits properly.
Custom orthotics paired with a well made shoe can prevent the progression and development of hammertoes. Wearing proper-fitting shoes and custom orthotic devices can provide the support patients need
to address muscle/tendon dysfunction. It can also support end stage diseases that result in hammertoe deformities by re-balancing the foot and ankle and controlling the deforming forces.